For a schools phone number you can go to
For other people or places there are two solutions, one is to google the white pages or go to the local library, most will have the Cole's directory, which is the criss/cross that the telemarketers, creditors and so forth use.
Here you can look up by the address ( or phone number ) . This has only listed numbers, and has a mark that show if the person is on the federal or state Do Not Call list.
Hope this helps