Usually your rental history is not reported to your credit report (unless you use a company like http://www.rentreporters.com
- tip to anyone looking to build some credit scores using rental history), however when you default on your rental/lease agreement, you can be evicted, like you are asking about, and eventually the money (which is a debt) you owe could be sold to a collection agency, or the landlord could potentially file a eviction judgment against you, and that would appear on your credit report, but may not appear right away.
Now other items can happen to you to that will not appear on your credit report, one is that you could be put into a database such as CoreLogic's SafeRent - http://www.residentscreening.com
- which landlords can enter you into and other landlords can cross reference.
The additional screening services aren't use as widely as checking a prospective tenant's credit, so if it at all possible I'd work with them on making sure it doesn't get reflected on your credit. Private landlords (vs. apartment complexes) are less likely to use screening services as well.
Just because you have an eviction on your credit report, or in a landlord/renter database, does not mean you cannot rent again, there are situations beyond your control and people are reasonable and will hear you out, so there is hope.