Congrats on transplanting from Texas to Colorado! My husband and I did the same (from Austin, TX) a couple years ago and have loved our new state.
As for differences in homes, we definitely did not have basements in Texas whereas most of the homes here in Colorado do have basements. Be sure to note this as you are looking at homes online and you see square footage numbers. It is tricky though because not all agents list the square footage of a home (including the basement) correctly.
For us, we took a site visit and drove different areas that we were interested in before narrowing down our search. I would definitely be mindful of your job and about how far you want to be away from work.
As far as schools, I am not as familiar with Boulder since I live in the South Metro Denver area, but I do know that Cherry Creek and Douglas County schools are very reputable systems.
Let me know if you'd ever like to chat over the phone or have a quick coffee when you get here!
Your Castle Real Estate
(720) 988 5952