That's a great question!
As a real estate agent, we generally can walk in a house and say "this feels like it was built in the 20's", etc. This assumes, of course, that a home has not been altered.
We see a lot of "character houses" (English, Spanish, etc) in the 20's and 30's. It's common to see hardwood floors, small closets (they did not own a lot of clothes), no "family room", large living room and dining room (for entertaining and daily life), small bedrooms (you only slept there), kitchens without built-in appliances, and possibly a one car garage. The 40's were starting to modernize, leading to the "mid-century" ranch style of the 50's.
There are many books about home architecture through the years. You can find them on the internet, or in bookstores.
Quite frankly, each "era" has it's own plusses and minuses. And, some factors depend on the area/city/community/state that the home is built in. Also, what updates or upgrades have been done to the home (Has the electrical wiring been modernized? Have the plumbing pipes been redone?)
Basically, your question spans a very broad base of information. If you have a specific home or homes you would like more information about, please let us know.