No, you can not determine if a previous offer was presented.
Your agent MAY be able to ask the listing agent if a previous offer was ACCEPTED.
Your agent MAY be able to ask the listing agent why the previous offer failed.
A home seller and the professional representing them, would find a buyers need of this information to be irrelevant and therefore abstain from contributing to confusing a potential further.
It is also reasonable to assume such an inquiry, and the subsequent response, is an attempt to gain advantage by the buyer. When a seller starts making concessions, or negotiating with themselves, even before an offer is presented the predictable outcome is another seller beat-down. My guidance to sellers is NO conversation is merited until a offer is on the table. Then the first one to say 'NO' the American way, wins.
Best of success in buying your home,
Annette Lawrence, Broker/Associate
Remax Realtec Group
Palm Harbor, FL