Congratulations on deciding to own your own home!
All the items that you listed are important to know & I know of no association that would prevent a prospective buyer from getting that information.
But first you really need to speak to a lender & get pre-qualified (preferably pre-approved) for a mortage & find an agent or REALTOR to help you navigate through the process and save you time, wasted energy and money.
Once you have your team in place you will be in a better position to get the info you need to make an informed decision on which property to purchase.
Many of the questions that you have your agent will be able to research for you and answer before you make an offer; and once you get into escrow, as part of your inspection period, the seller will provide all the detailed homeowner association info including copies of the minutes from their meetings, the CC&Rs (covenants, conditions and restrictions are the governing documents that dictate how the homeowners association operates and what rules the owners must obey), etc.
The reason you will usually wait till you get into escrow for those documents is that the HOA (Home Owners Association) typically charges a fee for producing all that information. I have seen the fee be anywhere between $150-$500 (with around $400 being an average) and if you haven't made an offer that is acceptable to the seller where they agree to pay the fee, you would have to. It also may take around a week to receive the packet from the HOA, during which time another buyer may write an offer & be accepted by the seller.
During your inspection period, you have the right to inspect the property & grounds, the HOA doc.s, the taxes, the schools, the neighborhood, any databases, etc. If you find something that you would not be comfortable living with (say you are a day sleeper because you work nights & the neighbor runs a daycare causing too much noise for you to sleep or you find in the CC&Rs that they don't allow you to run a home based business and you had been planning on starting one, etc.) you have the opportunity to cancel the transaction and as long as you cancel according to the purchase contract you get your earnest money deposit back.
Hope that helps you and best of luck on your new home!