You should check for a long term rental in center city via airbnb or another type of service so that you can get your bearings in the city.
You may or may not wish to be by the airport if you need ground transportation. The area directly around the airport is not residential.
The Center City Philadelphia neighborhoods can occasionally offer a short term rental with furnishings - its not very common in Philly.
Additionally, you want to be walking distance to the Septa Regional Rail system train number 1 for public ground transportation to the airport.
Philly proper is somewhat detached from the airport, a fifteen minute car ride on the highway, so this is going to take a bit of work to achieve your wishlist. A short term landing spot would be my recommendation.
Let me know if you have additional questions. Philadelphia is a great city, welcome.
The Barlow Group
Keller Williams Center City Realty