De-facto standard is vinyl double-paned ... I am not hearing much new technologies in windows (making my argument on the heating question you posed moot). If you need to meet certain architectural styles, then sometimes wood framed windows are used, but generally white vinyl double-paned.
If you want to get really fancy ..triple-paned windows can be used, but the benefits of a triple may not outweigh the costs.
aluminum has a very strong tendency to weep ..meaning gather moisture on the exposed areas inside the house causing slow and gradual water damage to molding, drywalls, etc. (at least the aluminums in my rental house do and my parents house).
Fiberglass, i haven't done much research into nor have i seen many.