Location and price are required to input a property in the MLS so there should never be a problem there.
In a print advertisement it is not. Three reasons why in an advertisement it 'might' not be there:
1. Not enough space and they'd rather advertise the attributes of the property
2. Agents way to generate phone calls to pick up leads
3. Owners request privacy and don't want the info published at large
Out of the 3 reasons I listed I believe #2 is more often the case than not, but not always. By generating a phone call it allows the agent to speak directly to a potential buyer and give more details than the ad thereby possibly acquiring a buyer that would have just looked passed the ad not realizing the full potential of the property. And/or it give the agent an opportunity to pick up a new client.
Your frustration is understandable and I agree it's frustrating. Regardless of frustration I would still call. Either the agent will give you the requested information or try and sell you which if you are uncomfortable you can politely terminate the call. But, I don't think this form of advertising will end (again I agree with your frustration) so don't miss out on a house b/c of a 1 minute phone call. You control the conversation. If you have an agent, have them inquire for you to by pass unwanted solicitation.
Let me know if you have any questions.