While this isn't your total answer, the Department of Transportation publishes statistics on major to-from points at http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/traffic/seattle/traveltimes/. As you can see, it not only publishes "normal" times, but gives the times right now. If you know approximately when you are traveling, it might be useful to check back every day at that time for a week or so to get an accurate picture.
Any other questions, feel free to ping me!
Unfortunately, we don't have the best traffic. From most of the places that you listed you are looking around 40 mins. There are bottlenecks in the Sammamish/Klahnie areas just as there are in the Redmond Ridge area. I competely understand wanting a short communte, I used to communte from Duvall to Mercer Island, a wapping 50mins each way.
Your best bet for <30 mins commute might be Kirkland, Bellevue or Mercer Island. Possibly some luck in Newcastle area or South Bothell, South Woodinville (Kingsgate).
I'm not aware of there being charts comparing commute times - something like that would be helpful although this would be subject to change due to variables....what I have suggeted in the past to clients is to do the drive one day after work to get an idea. One thing to note, the less time anyone can spend on I405, the better for them since that is the worst in my opinion.
I think looking down the I-90 corridor is a great idea. Commute times will be based on what time you leave in the morning and what time you head for home, but as a long time resident of Klahanie, and a person who commutes to downtown Bellevue daily, I think anywhere from Eastgate to Issaquah is good. I-90 seems to be the better freeway out of the three. Great neighborhoods to consider are Issaquah Highlands, Klahanie and Trossachs, but there are other great communities on the South end of the Plateau as well.