In addition to Carl's answer, some agents put a pending sale sign up when the house has an accepted contract but there are still contingencies, and a sold sign up when the contingencies have been removed, and they are just waiting to close escrow, but it varies with the agent and his/her availability of signs or desires.
It means an offer has been submitted and the property is now off the market. It remains pending while it is in escrow, normally 21-45 days. Once escrow has closed, it moves to SOLD status and will then show up on the county tax records. It is typically not possible to know the sales price until it closes.
Let me know if you have any additional questions.