Oh yes. Many people have a second mortgage or HELOC and may have a mechanic's lean or judgment for other work done, or possibly condo association. And if taxes or public utility bills are not paid, those will be leans against the property as well. Doesn't mean they will all get paid, but they do have claims. This is why if you are buying any house, you need your attorney to ensure you have clear title and why you will purchase Title Insurance to guarantee to the new mortgage lenders that you own the property should they have to foreclose.