Andrew Square, Ashmont, Adams Village, Grove Hall, Lower Mills, Neponset, Savin Hill, St. Brendans (Cedar Grove?), Uphams Corner.
Some of these are noted on MLS and some are not, from a real estate perspective.
I'm sure others more familiar with all areas of Dorchester will chime in with a few more "local" descriptions.
I did a quick google too after I came up with my list, and wikipedia has a good map: