It really depends from state to state. I know someone who has been facing foreclosure for 3 plus years now. The date keeps getting setback and setback. I think that's a pretty rare case to go that long though.
That's a tough question and depends on where in the process the borrower is and who the lender is. Generally, 2-6 months is probably the norm. Anyone who has been unable to make payments and has been served with a foreclosure notice should try contacting the Loss Mitigation dept of their lender to see if something can't be worked out as far as getting payments lowered so they can keep the house. If they have a lawyer, they might talk to him/her and see if they can help. Barring all that, start looking for alternate housing immediately as it usually takes time to find a suitable rental, pack and move. I hope this helps.