For example, you cannot inquire and we cannot answer if a death occurred to someone with HIV. I disagree with the principle this prohibition reflects, but we must follow the law.
I disagree with it, because no one really knows to an absolute medical certainty that it is unequivocally safe to reside in a house where a virus was carried by an occupant. Imagine the virus were Ebola - the public would be outraged if owners and agents hid that fact. But because there is so much pressure to accept a disease commonly transmitted sexually, the jokers in Washington outlawed disclosing it. To me it is a national disgrace.
As to other types of deaths, records of murders and manslaughter are not typically indexed by address. The police blotter may have some information, but Bruce is probably right - ask the neighbors. They often know things that aren't their business and are willing to blab it to anybody who asks. You can investigate the neighborhood crime statistics on several websites, but past performance is no guarantee of future events.
To answer your question: If a crime was involved, the police will have records. But, as Bruce notes, if it was a natural death it's unlikely there's any way to find out. Neighbors might know. Or you could Google the address and see if anything appears.
Hope that helps.
Deaths in homes are common. You can probably ask your family members if any of your relatives have died at home. Natural deaths do not have to be disclosed.
What you really want to be concerned about is if there were any violent deaths and if that would be cause for concern for the future. For example is the home known to be a former dealer hangout and word is not out that they have moved, so people might mistake your family for theirs? That's what you don't want. Again sometimes tough to figure this out. Usually there is a neighbor that knows the scoop. Ask them, they'll share.