I think you may be asking about "backset" which pertains to the distance required from the property line to the structure.
This is controlled by the zoning of an area. You may able to build directly on the line dividing your home from your neighbors and building codes will dictate the type of partition required to protect you and your neighbor from fire spread.
The front and back set will differ from neighborhood to neighborhood.
Usually the bet tact is to contact the local building code enforcement office, they can be very helpful.
Their job is to help and protect the public.